【摘要】Exploration and extraction activities in the Alberta Oil Sands region have degraded thousands of hectares of land, about 40 % of which were once covered by peatlands. To date, there is very little information regarding the reclamation of peatlands, and even less related to their reclamation after oil sands disturbances. The results of this study will be used to develop protocols for the reclamation of peatlands after disturbance due to oil sands exploration and extraction operations in the Alberta Oil Sands region.;Carex aquatilis is considered to be an ideal candidate species for initiating reclamation because it is a common pioneer species of disturbed landscapes, and has been shown to have a wide range of tolerances for several environmental factors in other areas of its overall distribution. The results of this study showed even wider ranges of tolerance than previous studies have reported, and did so using an ecological field study, a greenhouse propagation study, and a greenhouse Na+ tolerance study.;A field study used vegetation surveys and environmental data to determine that Carex aquatilis is abundant in several wetland types and is not strongly associated with any of the species with which it was commonly found. In addition, C. aquatilis also was present across wide ranges of environmental variables including pH, conductivity, shade, water depth, Na+ concentration of surface water and percent organic carbon content of the substrate. These wide ranges of tolerance should allow C. aquatilis to establish after many types of disturbance.;A greenhouse propagation study tested for population differences in percent germination after four stratification treatments, three stratification durations and four germination treatments. The overall best stratification treatment was to store seeds moist at 4°C for 30 days. The most effective germination treatment across all treatments was to plant seeds just below the surface of the substrate with the water level maintained at 1cm below the substrate surface. Only 9% of all sown seeds germinated. There were differences in germination rates between populations, although it is unknown whether these differences were due to differences in viability, timing of seed maturation, stratification requirements or germination requirements.;A greenhouse Na+ tolerance experiment tested for differences in Na+ tolerance between four populations and two age classes to assess the efficacy of C. aquatilis as a pioneer species after oil sands surface mining disturbance. Five Na+ concentrations ranging from 5 to 2000 mg L-1 were tested. Plants showed no differences in Na+ tolerance between populations, but younger plants were more susceptible to damage from Na+ stress than older plants so it is recommended that older plants are used to initiate reclamation. It is also recommended that Na+ be managed on surface mine reclamations so that it is below 500 mg L-1.
【摘要机译】艾伯塔省油砂地区的勘探和开采活动使数千公顷的土地退化，其中约40％曾经被泥炭地覆盖。迄今为止，关于泥炭地开垦的信息很少，而与油砂扰动后的泥炭地开垦有关的信息甚至更少。这项研究的结果将用于开发因阿尔伯塔省油砂地区的油砂勘探和开采作业造成扰动后的泥炭地开垦方案。Carex aquatilis被认为是启动开垦的理想候选物种，因为它是常见的先驱物种是受干扰的景观，在其总体分布的其他领域中，已表现出对多种环境因素的宽容度。这项研究的结果表明，其耐受性范围比以前的研究报道的范围更广，并且使用了生态田间研究，温室繁殖研究和温室Na +耐受性研究。这样做是通过田间研究使用植被调查和环境数据来确定的。认为，Carex aquatilis在几种湿地类型中都丰富，并且与通常发现的任何物种都没有强烈的联系。此外，水产梭状芽胞杆菌还存在于广泛的环境变量中，包括pH值，电导率，阴影，水深，地表水的Na +浓度和基质的有机碳含量。这些宽泛的耐受范围应允许水产梭状芽孢杆菌在许多类型的干扰后建立。一项温室繁殖研究测试了四种分层处理，三种分层持续时间和四种发芽处理后的种群发芽百分比差异。总体上最好的分层处理是将种子在4°C下潮湿保存30天。在所有处理中，最有效的发芽处理是在基质表面以下种植种子，并使水位保持在基质表面以下1厘米处。所有播种种子中只有9％发芽了。群体之间的发芽率存在差异，尽管尚不清楚这些差异是否是由于生存力，种子成熟时间，分层要求或发芽要求的差异引起的;温室Na +耐性试验测试了四个种群之间的Na +耐性差异在两个年龄段中，评估油砂地表开采扰动后水产梭状芽胞杆菌作为先锋物种的功效。测试了5种Na +浓度，范围从5到2000 mg L-1。植物之间的Na +耐受性没有差异，但是年轻植物比老植物更容易受到Na +胁迫的损害，因此建议使用老植物进行开垦。还建议对Na +进行露天开采，使其含量低于500 mg L-1。